He claims that this view is largely eschewed by most academics. Historians in particular think it diminishes the importance of human action, and argue, according to Diamond, that it is deterministic. Diamond aspires to write what he calls a "unified synthesis" of a range of disciplines, including human genetics, history, archaeology, evolutionary biology, and epidemiology
Guns, germs, and Steel: It has been translated into 36 languages, including all the major languages of book publishing, as well as languages of small markets such as Estonian and Serbian. It won the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-fiction, plus numerous other prizes.
An extraterrestrial being visiting the Earth 14, years ago could have been forgiven for failing to predict this outcome, because the human populations of other Buy Guns, germs, and steel continents apparently also possessed advantages.
Africans enjoyed a huge head start, because Africa is the continent with by far the longest history of human occupation. North America is a big fertile continent, with the result that it supports the richest and most productive nation today. Australia provides by far the earliest evidence for human ability to cross wide water gaps, and some of the earliest widespread evidence for behaviorally modern humans.
Why, nevertheless, were Eurasians the ones to expand? Although every lay person sees that this is a question crying out for answer, historians have mostly ignored this question. Several reasons explain their neglect.
One reason is that the answer clearly lies in the pre-literate past, because by BC Eurasians and North Africans, biogeographically and politically part of Eurasia rather than of sub-Saharan Africa had already had metal tools for thousands of years and were starting to develop writing and empires, thousands of years before any of those things would appear on any other continent.
But most historians consider history to begin with the origins of writing, and consider the pre-literate past as lying outside the scope of their discipline and instead to be left to archaeologists.
Also, as we shall see, the answers to this question involve details of subjects especially plant and animal biology and microbiology in which history graduate students receive no training.
But lay people still want an answer to this obvious question. As a result of the failure of historians to supply an answer, lay people often fall back on the transparent interpretation of supposed racial superiority of Eurasian people themselves, despite the lack of evidence for that interpretation.
When I arrived in New Guinea for the first time, it became clear to me almost immediately that New Guineans are curious, questioning, talkative people with complex languages and social relationships, on the average at least as intelligent as Europeans and Americans.
Eventually, a New Guinean named Yali, in the course of a long conversation with me about birds and volcanoes and my work and other things, asked me the question directly: It took me 25 years until I was ready to offer an answer, in Guns, Germs, and Steel.
The highest one-day death toll in those wars occurred on June 4,when northern Dani killed face-to-face southern Dani, many of whom the attackers would personally have known or known of. The answer depends on a synthesis of four bodies of information, in the fields of social science, botany, zoology, and microbiology, applied to findings of archaeology, linguistics, and human genetics.
Many social scientists have studied the development of complex societies around the world, and the emergence of technology, writing, centralized government, economic specialization, and social stratification.
The conclusion of social scientists is that all of these developments required sedentary populous societies producing storable food surpluses capable of feeding not only the food producers themselves, but also capable of feeding full-time political leaders, merchants, scribes, and technology specialists.
One might still wonder: Here, the bodies of information in the fields of botany and zoology become relevant.
The value of the domesticated plants and animals also varied among regions: Why did food production arise in only nine regions? Why were those regions not the most fertile and productive regions of modern agriculture, such as California, Europe, Japan, and Java?
A century of research by botanists and zoologists has established that only certain plant and animal species lend themselves to domestication, and has identified the specific problems preventing the domestication of Image from The World Until Yesterday.
This issue presented one of the crucial problems for me in writing Guns, Germs, and Steel. Hence I devoted two of the longest chapters of Guns, Germs, and Steel to assembling many independent lines of evidence showing that the explanation for the non-origins of domestication in most regions of the world, and the non-domestication of most wild species, lay with the wild plant and animal species themselves, not with the people of those regions.
The spread of food production from those nine centers of origin followed a striking geographic pattern: My listeners and readers find this pattern as fascinating as did I: Thus, one can explain as follows the reasons why the people who spread around the world were Eurasians, not Aboriginal Australians or Native Americans or sub-Saharan Africans.
The reasons had nothing to do with differences in the peoples themselves. That long sentence is what I answer when journalists ask me to summarize my page book and 25 years of research in just one sentence for their busy readers.Attachment theory is a psychological model attempting to describe the dynamics of long-term and short-term interpersonal relationships between humans.
"Attachment theory is not formulated as a general theory of relationships; it addresses only a specific facet": how human beings respond within relationships when hurt, separated from loved ones, or perceiving a threat.
There is no serious, detailed alternative theory to explain why human history unfolded differently on the different continents.
As for the charge of racism, Guns, Germs, and Steel ’s conclusion is that history’s broad pattern has nothing to do with human racial characteristics and everything to do with plant and animal biology. Brief Biosketch. Adele Diamond is the Canada Research Chair Professor of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver.
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