Consciousness essays from a higher-order perspective

Mental development Recreational Emotions influence behavior that alters the state of consciousness. Emotions can be influenced by various stimuli. Avner, professor of clinical pediatrics, a crucial element to understanding accidental and pathological causes to altered states of consciousness ASC is that it begins with reduced self-awareness followed by reduced awareness in the environment Those with personal experience of conditions such as Depersonalisation often cite the opposite, that it is an increased awareness of the environment and the self that results in altered states of consciousness.

Consciousness essays from a higher-order perspective

Historical predecessors[ edit ] The hard problem has scholarly antecedents considerably earlier than Chalmers, as Chalmers himself has pointed out. Divide matter into as minute parts as you will which we are apt to imagine a sort of spiritualizing Consciousness essays from a higher-order perspective making a thinking thing of it vary the figure and motion of it as much as you please—a globe, cube, cone, prism, cylinder, etc.

They knock, impel, and resist one another, just as the greater do; and that is all they can do Moreover, it must be confessed that perception and that which depends upon it are inexplicable on mechanical grounds, that is to say, by means of figures and motions.

And supposing there were a machine, so constructed as to think, feel, and have perception, it might be conceived as increased in size, while keeping the same proportions, so that one might go into it as into a mill. That being so, we should, on examining its interior, find only parts which work one upon another, and never anything by which to explain a perception.

Now I am far from pretending that it may not be capable of proof, or that it is not an important addition to our knowledge if proved, that certain motions in the particles of bodies are the conditions of the production of heat or light; that certain assignable physical modifications of the nerves may be the conditions not only of our sensations or emotions, but even of our thoughts; that certain mechanical and chemical conditions may, in the order of nature, be sufficient to determine to action the physiological laws of life.

All I insist upon, in common with every thinker who entertains any clear idea of the logic of science, is, that it shall not be supposed that by proving these things one step would be made towards a real explanation of heat, light, or sensation; or that the generic peculiarity of those phenomena can be in the least degree evaded by any such discoveries, however well established.

Let it be shown, for instance, that the most complex series of physical causes and effects succeed one another in the eye and in the brain to produce a sensation of colour; rays falling on the eye, refracted, converging, crossing one another, making an inverted image on the retina, and after this a motion—let it be a vibration, or a rush of nervous fluid, or whatever else you are pleased to suppose, along the optic nerve—a propagation of this motion to the brain itself, and as many more different motions as you choose; still, at the end of these motions, there is something which is not motion, there is a feeling or sensation of colour.

Whatever number of motions we may be able to interpolate, and whether they be real or imaginary, we shall still find, at the end of the series, a motion antecedent and a colour consequent.

The mode in which any one of the motions produces the next, may possibly be susceptible of explanation by some general law of motion: Where our consciousness recognises between two phenomena an inherent distinction; where we are sensible of a difference which is not merely of degree, and feel that no adding one of the phenomena to itself would produce the other; any theory which attempts to bring either under the laws of the other must be false; though a theory which merely treats the one as a cause or condition of the other, may possibly be true.

Huxley wrote in But what consciousness is, we know not; and how it is that anything so remarkable as a state of consciousness comes about as the result of irritating nervous tissue, is just as unaccountable as the appearance of the Djin when Aladdin rubbed his lamp in the story, or as any other ultimate fact of nature.

If physicalism is to be defended, the phenomenological features must themselves be given a physical account. But when we examine their subjective character it seems that such a result is impossible.

The reason is that every subjective phenomenon is essentially connected with a single point of view, and it seems inevitable that an objective, physical theory will abandon that point of view. Neural correlates of consciousness Sinceresearchers including the molecular biologist Francis Crick and the neuroscientist Christof Koch have made significant progress toward identifying which neurobiological events occur concurrently to the experience of subjective consciousness.

However, this research arguably addresses the question of which neurobiological mechanisms are linked to consciousness but not the question of why they should give rise to consciousness at all, the latter being the hard problem of consciousness as Chalmers formulated it. In "On the Search for the Neural Correlate of Consciousness", Chalmers said he is confident that, granting the principle that something such as what he terms global availability can be used as an indicator of consciousness, the neural correlates will be discovered "in a century or two".

One can always ask why these processes of availability should give rise to consciousness in the first place.

As yet we cannot explain why they do so, and it may well be that full details about the processes of availability will still fail to answer this question.

Certainly, nothing in the standard methodology I have outlined answers the question; that methodology assumes a relation between availability and consciousness, and therefore does nothing to explain it. Somewhere along the line we may be led to the relevant insights that show why the link is there, and the hard problem may then be solved.

Consciousness essays from a higher-order perspective

Integrated information theory Integrated information theory IITdeveloped by the neuroscientist and psychiatrist Giulio Tononi in and more recently also advocated by Koch, is one of the most discussed models of consciousness in neuroscience and elsewhere.

Tononi wrote along with two colleagues: As will be illustrated below, IIT offers a way to analyze systems of mechanisms to determine if they are properly structured to give rise to consciousness, how much of it, and of which kind.

Chalmers argued that a "rich inner life" is not logically reducible to the functional properties of physical processes. He states that consciousness must be described using nonphysical means. This description involves a fundamental ingredient capable of clarifying phenomena that have not been explained using physical means.

Use of this fundamental property, Chalmers argues, is necessary to explain certain functions of the world, much like other fundamental features, such as mass and time, and to explain significant principles in nature.

The philosopher Thomas Nagel posited in that experiences are essentially subjective accessible only to the individual undergoing them—i. So at this stage, he argued, we have no idea what it could even mean to claim that an essentially subjective state just is an essentially non-subjective state i.

This book is a collection of essays about consciousness and related issues. It focuses mostly on developing, defending, and exploring the implications of one particular sort of reductive explanation of phenomenal consciousness, which the author now refers to as ‘dual-content theory’. The Hard Problem of Consciousness. The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining why any physical state is conscious rather than nonconscious. About us. John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent, family-owned academic publisher headquartered in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. More.

In other words, we have no idea of what reductivism really amounts to. These theorists have argued that once we really come to understand what consciousness is, we will realize that the hard problem is unreal.

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For instance, Dennett asserts that the so-called hard problem will be solved in the process of answering the "easy" ones which, as he has clarified, he does not consider "easy" at all. Instead of involving the nonphysical, he says, consciousness merely plays tricks on people so that it appears nonphysical—in other words, it simply seems like it requires nonphysical features to account for its powers.

In this way, Dennett compares consciousness to stage magic and its capability to create extraordinary illusions out of ordinary things.Perhaps no aspect of mind is more familiar or more puzzling than consciousness and our conscious experience of self and world.

The problem of consciousness is arguably the central issue in current theorizing about the mind. Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews is an electronic, peer-reviewed journal that publishes timely reviews of scholarly philosophy books.

Consciousness: Essays from a Higher-Order Perspective // Reviews // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // University of Notre Dame. Beyond the general conclusion of literature reviews that generations exert a null influence on various work processes and outcomes, it is important to critique how theories of generations influence the conduct of generational differences research.

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An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking , the expression was in use in relation to hypnosis although an ongoing debate about hypnosis as an ASC based on modern definition exists.

The next retrievable instance, by Dr Max Mailhouse from his presentation. Consciousness Essays from a Higher-Order Perspective Peter Carruthers. A Clarendon Press Publication.

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One of the world's leading experts defends a highly original theory of consciousness. This book is a collection of essays about consciousness and related issues. It focuses mostly on developing, defending, and exploring the implications of one particular sort of reductive explanation of phenomenal consciousness, which the author now refers to as ‘dual-content theory’.

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