An analysis of the characteristics and dangers of alcohol abuse in australia

Think of the abuser as a con artist. Pastors and other spiritual leaders become adept at using spcipture to back up their subtle manipulation and control. Leaders often find ways to control, not only what happens in their churches, but also what happens in Your personal life.

An analysis of the characteristics and dangers of alcohol abuse in australia

Cause[ edit ] Fetal alcohol syndrome usually occurs when a pregnant woman has more than four standard drinks per day. On the contrary, clinical and animal studies have identified a broad spectrum of pathways through which maternal alcohol can negatively affect the outcome of a pregnancy.

An analysis of the characteristics and dangers of alcohol abuse in australia

Clear conclusions with universal validity are difficult to draw, since different ethnic groups show considerable genetic polymorphism for the hepatic enzymes responsible for ethanol detoxification.

The so-called placental barrier is no barrier with respect to ethanol. The developing fetal nervous system appears particularly sensitive to ethanol toxicity. The latter impacts negatively on proliferation, differentiation, neuronal migration, axonic outgrowth, integration and fine tuning of the synaptic network.

In short, all major processes in the developing central nervous system appear compromised.

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Fetal tissues are quite different from adult tissues in function and purpose. For example, the main detoxicating organ in adults is the liverwhereas the fetal liver is incapable of detoxicating ethanol, as the ADH and ALDH enzymes have not yet been brought to expression at this early stage.

Up to term, fetal tissues do not have significant capacity for the detoxification of ethanol, and the fetus remains exposed to ethanol in the amniotic fluid for periods far longer than the decay time of ethanol in the maternal circulation.

Generally, fetal tissues have far less antioxidant protection than adult tissues, as they express no significant quantities of ADH and ALDH, and far lesser quantities of antioxidant enzymes, like SODglutathione transferases, and glutathion peroxidases.

This complicates diagnosis and treatment [22] of the syndrome. A positive finding on all four features is required for a diagnosis of FAS. However, prenatal alcohol exposure and central nervous system damage are the critical elements of the spectrum of FASD, and a positive finding in these two features is sufficient for an FASD diagnosis that is not "full-blown FAS".

While the four diagnostic systems essentially agree on criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome FASthere are still differences when full criteria for FAS are not met.

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This has resulted in differing and evolving nomenclature for other conditions across the spectrum of FASD, which may account for such a wide variety of terminology. Most individuals with deficits resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure do not express all features of FAS and fall into other FASD conditions.

However, these other FASD conditions may create disabilities similar to FAS if the key area of central nervous system damage shows clinical deficits in two or more of ten domains of brain functioning.

In these other FASD conditions, an individual may be at greater risk for adverse outcomes because brain damage is present without associated visual cues of poor growth or the "FAS face" that might ordinarily trigger an FASD evaluation. Such individuals may be misdiagnosed with primary mental health disorders such as ADHD or oppositional defiance disorder without appreciation that brain damage is the underlying cause of these disorders, which requires a different treatment paradigm than typical mental health disorders.

Fetal alcohol syndrome[ edit ] The following criteria must be fully met for an FAS diagnosis: Prenatal or postnatal height or weight or both at or below the 10th percentile [21] FAS facial features: All three FAS facial features present [28] Central nervous system damage: Clinically significant structural neurological, or functional impairment Prenatal alcohol exposure: To make this diagnosis or determine any FASD condition, a multi-disciplinary evaluation is necessary to assess each of the four key features for assessment.

Generally, a trained physician will determine growth deficiency and FAS facial features.

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These professionals work together as a team to assess and interpret data of each key feature for assessment and develop an integrative, multi-disciplinary report to diagnose FAS or other FASD conditions in an individual.

People with pFAS have a confirmed history of prenatal alcohol exposure, but may lack growth deficiency or the complete facial stigmata. Central nervous system damage is present at the same level as FAS. These individuals have the same functional disabilities but "look" less like FAS.

An analysis of the characteristics and dangers of alcohol abuse in australia

The following criteria must be fully met for a diagnosis of Partial FAS: Growth or height may range from normal to deficient [21] FAS facial features: Two or three FAS facial features present [28] Central nervous system damage: Clinically significant structural, neurological, or functional impairment in three or more of the Ten Brain Domains [43] Prenatal alcohol exposure: Confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure Fetal alcohol effects[ edit ] Fetal alcohol effects FAE is a previous term for alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder and alcohol-related birth defects.

The Canadian guidelines also use this diagnosis and the same criteria. While the "4-Digit Diagnostic Code" includes these criteria for three of its diagnostic categories, it refers to this condition as static encephalopathy. The behavioral effects of ARND are not necessarily unique to alcohol however, so use of the term must be within the context of confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure.

Growth or height may range from normal to minimally deficient [21] FAS facial features: Minimal or no FAS facial features present [28] Central nervous system damage: Exposure level is assessed as confirmed exposure, unknown exposure, and confirmed absence of exposure by the IOM, CDC and Canadian diagnostic systems.The Texarkana Gazette is the premier source for local news and sports in Texarkana and the surrounding Arklatex areas.

Driving while under the influence of legal or illegal substances puts the driver, passengers, and others who share the road in danger. Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug. It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein.

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Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, sweating, and large pupils.

. Alcohol as a Gateway - Alcohol and heavy drinking throughout Canada plays a distinctive role in instigating other key addictions. Drinking and consumption abuse can be linked strongly to the abuse of illicit drugs.

Oct 09,  · If you like energy drinks, then you should do some research into a common ingredient called Taurine. Learn about the dangers of taurine.

When Waleed Aly raised the spectre of unconscious bias in his Logies speech, it struck a chord. It's an issue my workplace has been exploring in .

Spiritual Abuse - Independent Fundamental Baptist (IFB) Deception